Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://docs.prosentient.com.au/prosentientjspui/handle/1/11053
Title: Isolation of Novel Trypanosomatid, Zelonia australiensis sp. nov. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) Provides Support for a Gondwanan Origin of Dixenous Parasitism in the Leishmaniinae.
Authors: Barratt, Joel
Kaufer, Alexa
Peters, Bryce
Craig, Douglas
Lawrence, Andrea
Roberts, Tamalee
Lee, Rogan
McAuliffe, Gary
Stark, Damien
Ellis, John
Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia..
School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia..
School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.. Insect Research Facility, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia..
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada..
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.. Department of Medical Entomology, University of Sydney & Pathology West - ICPMR, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia..
St. Vincent's Hospital Sydney, Division of Microbiology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia..
Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia..
Microbiology Department, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia..
St. Vincent's Hospital Sydney, Division of Microbiology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia..
School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia..
Issue Date: Jan-2017
Citation: PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2017-01; 11(1): e0005215
Abstract: The genus Leishmania includes approximately 53 species, 20 of which cause human leishmaniais; a significant albeit neglected tropical disease. Leishmaniasis has afflicted humans for millennia, but how ancient is Leishmania and where did it arise? These questions have been hotly debated for decades and several theories have been proposed. One theory suggests Leishmania originated in the Palearctic, and dispersed to the New World via the Bering land bridge. Others propose that Leishmania evolved in the Neotropics. The Multiple Origins theory suggests that separation of certain Old World and New World species occurred due to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Some suggest that the ancestor of the dixenous genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Porcisia evolved on Gondwana between 90 and 140 million years ago. In the present study a detailed molecular and morphological characterisation was performed on a novel Australian trypanosomatid following its isolation in Australia's tropics from the native black fly, Simulium (Morops) dycei Colbo, 1976. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted and confirmed this parasite as a sibling to Zelonia costaricensis, a close relative of Leishmania previously isolated from a reduviid bug in Costa Rica. Consequently, this parasite was assigned the name Zelonia australiensis sp. nov. Assuming Z. costaricensis and Z. australiensis diverged when Australia and South America became completely separated, their divergence occurred between 36 and 41 million years ago at least. Using this vicariance event as a calibration point for a phylogenetic time tree, the common ancestor of the dixenous genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Porcisia appeared in Gondwana approximately 91 million years ago. Ultimately, this study contributes to our understanding of trypanosomatid diversity, and of Leishmania origins by providing support for a Gondwanan origin of dixenous parasitism in the Leishmaniinae.
URI: http://docs.prosentient.com.au/prosentientjspui/handle/1/11053
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005215
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Animals
Australia
Female
Insect Vectors
Insecta
Kinetoplastida
Leishmania
Male
Phylogeny
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